Poverty in Europe
"A broad ‘at-risk-of-poverty or social exclusion rate’ indicator was proposed by the European Commission ... This indicator is an aggregate of three sub-indicators: monetary poverty, severe material deprivation and very low work intensity (the latter is limited to people aged 0 to 59). … People are counted only once in the headline indicator, even if they fall into more than one category.
Monetary poverty has been increasing gradually since 2005.
The number of people aged 0 to 59 living in households with very low work intensity declined between 2006 and 2008, but has since returned to the previous levels.
The number of severely materially deprived people has shown the largest swings compared to both 2005 and 2012, ... with significant reductions in recent years [2012-15]. … The decline in the amount of materially deprived people was mainly driven by improvements in Romania, Poland and Bulgaria [decrease between 7 and 10 pp]. …
"Greece, Cyprus and Spain experienced the most substantial increases in the share of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion, by 5-8 pp. ...
In 2015, 17.3 % of the EU population earned less than 60 % of their respective national median equivalised disposable income, the so-called poverty threshold. [2008: 16.5 %] ...
Most countries also experienced growth in the number of people below the monetary poverty line, regardless of whether they had low or high levels to begin with. Increases were most pronounced in Hungary, Sweden and Spain, with rises of between 2.3 and 2.5 percentage points. Croatia, Finland, Austria, the United Kingdom and Latvia were the exception, with monetary poverty in these countries decreasing. ...
The monetary poverty threshold is set at 60% of the median disposable income. That means that if the median income increases, but the inequality of the income distribution remains unchanged or even increases, the number of people below the poverty line does not decrease. Absolute poverty measures reflecting a person’s ability to afford basic goods, however, are likely to decrease during economic revivals when people are generally more financially better off.
Material deprivation is defined as living in households unable to afford 4+ items out of a list of 9 considered by most people to be desirable or even necessary for an adequate life. The nine items are: to pay their rent, mortgage or utility bills; to keep their home adequately warm; to face unexpected expenses; to eat meat or proteins regularly; to go on holiday; a television set; a washing machine; a car; a telephone. ...
Very low work intensity: the working-age members of the household worked no longer than 20 % of their potential working time during the previous year … Hungary, Germany and Poland showed substantial improvements in the work intensity of the working age population, with reductions ranging between 2.6 and 1.1 pp. The opposite was true in the southern European countries Greece, Spain, Cyprus and Portugal as well as Ireland, where the shares increased between 4.6 and 9.3 pp. ... In 2015, 7.7 % of the working EU population were at risk of poverty despite working full time …
"Single parents: had a 47.9 % chance of being at risk of poverty or social exclusion in 2015. … large increases in Denmark and Finland (6.9 and 6.7 pp). The biggest falls, besides Malta, were in Latvia and Germany (-13.7 and -10.4 pp). …
Low education: In 2015, 65.6 % of children of parents with at most pre-primary and lower secondary education were at risk of poverty or social exclusion. This was over six times higher than for children of parents with first or second stage tertiary education. Moreover, between 2010 and 2015 the increase in the risk of poverty or social exclusion was particularly high for children of parents with the lowest educational attainment while the increase was minimal for the other children. ...
Immigrants: In 2015, people living in the EU but born in a non-EU country had a 40.2 % risk of living in poverty or social exclusion. … The countries with the greatest difference in at-risk-of-poverty rate between people from non-EU countries and those living in their home country are Greece, Belgium and Spain (34, 34, and 31 pp gaps). [these numbers are just insanely high..]
Rural vs urban: The countries with the highest poverty rates in rural areas compared with urban areas are Romania and Bulgaria (26.7 and 23.1 pp higher). In other countries, such as Denmark, Austria, Belgium, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany, the opposite is true: a clearly larger share of urban residents live in poverty or social exclusion compared with residents in rural areas or towns."
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